Glossary

Glossary

Adipose tissue: Connective tissue in which fat is stored.

Amino Acids: A class of organic compounds known as the building blocks of protein.

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Synthetic deprivation of the male sex hormone testosterone.

Anatomical Position: Standing erect, with feet and palms facing forward.

Anterior: Anatomical term meaning toward the front. Opposite of posterior.

Atrophy: A decrease in cross sectional size of a muscle.

Axis of Rotation: Imaginary line or point about which an object rotates.

Basic Metabolic Rate: The energy expended by the body at rest to maintain normal function. Relative to lean body mass.

BCAA: Branched chain amino acids

Biological Value: The amount of protein nitrogen that is retained from a given amount of nitrogen that has been digested and absorbed.

Calorie: Amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water one degree C; used to express the fuel or energy value of food or the output of the organism.

Carbohydrate: A chemical compound made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are the chief source of energy for all body functions and anaerobic muscular exertions.

Cardiovascular Endurance Capacity: The tern used to define overall body endurance or stamina.

Catabolism: The tearing down or destruction of body tissue.

Cholesterol: A fat-like substance found in all animals fats, bile, skin, blood and brain tissue. Cholesterol is also necessary for the synthesis of endogenous hormones.

Complete protein: A protein containing all the essential amino in amounts adequate for human use.

Concentric: Muscle action in which the tension developed causes visible shortening of the muscle. Positive work is performed.

Eccentric: Muscle action in which tension is developed in the muscle and the muscle lengthens. Negative work is performed.

Ectomorph: Body type characterized by a light build and slight muscular development.

Endomorph: Body type characterized by a heavy rounded build, often with a marked tendency towards obesity or being overweight.

Energy: The capacity to do work.

Essential Fatty Acid: Fatty Acid that the body cannot manufacture and that may cause nutritional deficiency if not supplied through the diet and or/ supplementation.

Essential Nutrient: A nutrient that must be provided in the diet because the body cannot produce it.

Fat soluble Vitamins: Vitamins which can only be absorbed through the small intestine and in the presence of fat.

Fat: An essential nutrient providing energy and energy storage.

Fatigue: A state of increased discomfort and decreased efficiency resulting from prolonged or excessive exertion.

Fatty Acid: Building blocks of fat. Nutrient for the production of energy during prolonged low intensity activity.

Flexibility: The range of movement of a specific joint or a group of joints, influenced by the associated bones and bony structures, muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

Fructose: Fruit sugar

Glucose: The simplest form of sugar in which a carbohydrate is assimilated in the body: blood sugar.

Glycogen: The form in which carbohydrates are stored in the body.

Hyperglycemia: Elevated levels of glucose, or sugar, in the blood.

Hypertrophy: Enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increased in the size of its constituent cells.

Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas, which helps to control blood glucose levels and carbohydrates metabolism.

Intensity: In weight training, the load or percentage of maximum lifting capacity lifted with each repetition.

Isometric: Condition during which movement is produced.

Lactic Acid: A temporary product of an aerobic glucose metabolism.

Lean Body Mass: Body weight minus body fat; composed of muscle, bone and other nonfat tissue.

Lipid: Fat, or fat-like, substance.

Lipoprotein: A molecule that is a combination of protein and lipid; lipoproteins are the transporters of cholesterol in the bloodstream.

Maximum Heart Rate: The fastest heart rate possible under normal maximal exercise conditions.

Mesomorph: Husky body type, with muscular build.

Metabolism: The sum total of the energy-production and absorbing processes in the body; the energy used by the body.

Mineral: An inorganic substance which acts as a catalyst in many endogenous biological reactions, such as muscle contraction, nerve transmissions, digestion, metabolism and the utilization of nutrient in foods.

Nutrient: A substance necessary to maintain life, health and the reproduction in an organism.

Obesity: A percent of body fat greater than 25% for males or 30% females.

Osteoporosis: A decrease in bone density.

Posterior: Anatomical term meaning towards the back. Opposite of anterior.

Protein: An essential nutrient made up of amino acids. Building block for tissues. Complete protein for humans must have 22 amino acids. 1 gm=4kcals.

Recruitment: The gradual increase to a maximum in a reflex, when a stimulus of unaltered intensity is prolonged.

Repetition: The number of times a motion for an exercise is completed.

Saturated fat: A fatty acid with no double bonds and is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found primarily in animal products and is a major risk factor for heart disease.

Sets: The number of times a group of exercises is performed.

Testosterone: Male sex hormone

Thermic Effect of Food: An increase in energy expenditure due to an increase in cellular activity associated with the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food.

Unsaturated Fat: Vegetable fats usually containing little or no cholesterol.

Vitamin: An organic substance which occurs in varying quantities in specific foods and is absolutely necessary for proper growth and maintenance of health.

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