Nutrition and Fitness Glossary

Adipose tissue:

Connective tissue in which fat is stored.

Amino Acids:

A class of organic compounds known as the building blocks of protein.

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids:

Synthetic deprivation of the male sex hormone testosterone.

Anatomical Position:

Standing erect, with feet and palms facing forward.

Anterior:

Anatomical term meaning toward the front. Opposite of posterior.

Atrophy:

A decrease in cross sectional size of a muscle.

Axis of Rotation:

Imaginary line or point about which an object rotates.

Basal Metabolic Rate:

The energy expended by the body at rest to maintain normal function. Relative to lean body mass.

BCAA:

Branched-chain amino acids

Biological Value:

The amount of protein nitrogen that is retained from a given amount of nitrogen that has been digested and absorbed.

Calorie:

Amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water to one degree C; used to express the fuel or energy value of food or the output of the organism.

Carbohydrates:

A chemical compound made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are the chief source of energy for all body functions and anaerobic muscular exertions.

Cardiovascular Endurance Capacity:

The term used to define overall body endurance or stamina.

Catabolism:

The tearing down or destruction of body tissue.

Cholesterol:

A fat-like substance found in all animals fats, bile, skin, blood and brain tissue. Cholesterol is also necessary for the synthesis of endogenous hormones.

Complete protein:

A protein containing all the essential amino in amounts adequate for human use.

Concentric:

Muscle action in which the tension developed causes visible shortening of the muscle. Positive work is performed.

Eccentric:

Muscle action in which tension is developed in the muscle and the muscle lengthens. Negative work is performed.

Ectomorph:

Body type characterized by a light build and slight muscular development.

Endomorph:

Body type characterized by a heavy rounded build, often with a marked tendency towards obesity or being overweight.

Energy:

The capacity to do work.

Essential Fatty Acid:

Fatty Acid that the body cannot manufacture and that may cause nutritional deficiency if not supplied through the diet and/or supplementation.

Essential Nutrient:

A nutrient that must be provided in the diet because the body cannot produce it.

Fat soluble Vitamins:

Vitamins, which can only be absorbed through the small intestine and in the presence of fat.

Fat:

An essential nutrient providing energy and energy storage.

Fatigue:

A state of increased discomfort and decreased efficiency resulting from prolonged or excessive exertion.

Fatty Acid:

Building blocks of fat. Nutrient for the production of energy during prolonged low intensity activity.

Flexibility:

The range of movement of a specific joint or a group of joints, influenced by the associated bones and bony structures, muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

Fructose:

Fruit sugar

Glucose:

The simplest form of sugar in which a carbohydrate is assimilated in the body: blood sugar.

Glycogen:

The form in which carbohydrates are stored in the body.

Hyperglycemia:

Elevated levels of glucose, or sugar, in the blood.

Hypertrophy:

Enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

Insulin:

A hormone produced by the pancreas, which helps to control blood glucose levels and carbohydrates metabolism.

Intensity:

In weight training, the load or percentage of the maximum lifting capacity is lifted with each repetition.

Isometric:

Condition during which movement is produced.

Lactic Acid:

A temporary product of aerobic glucose metabolism.

Lean Body Mass:

Body weight minus body fat; composed of muscle, bone and other nonfat tissue.

Lipid:

Fat, or fat-like, substance.

Lipoprotein:

A molecule that is a combination of protein and lipid; lipoproteins are the transporters of cholesterol in the bloodstream.

Maximum Heart Rate:

The fastest heart rate possible under normal maximal exercise conditions.

Mesomorph:

Husky body type, with muscular build.

Metabolism:

The total of the energy-production and absorbing processes in the body; the energy used by the body.

Mineral:

An inorganic substance which acts as a catalyst in many endogenous biological reactions, such as muscle contraction, nerve transmissions, digestion, metabolism and the utilization of nutrients in foods.

Nutrient:

A substance necessary to maintain life, health and the reproduction in an organism.

Obesity:

A percent of body fat greater than 25% for males or 30% females.

Osteoporosis:

A decrease in bone density.

Posterior:

Anatomical term meaning towards the back. Opposite of anterior.

Protein:

An essential nutrient made up of amino acids. Building block for tissues. A complete protein for humans must have 22 amino acids. 1 gm=4kcals.

Recruitment:

The gradual increase to a maximum in a reflex, when a stimulus of unaltered intensity is prolonged.

Repetition:

The number of times a motion for an exercise is completed.

Saturated fat:

A fatty acid with no double bonds and is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found primarily in animal products and is a major risk factor for heart disease.

Sets:

The number of times a group of exercises is performed.

Testosterone:

Male sex hormone

Thermic Effect of Food:

An increase in energy expenditure due to an increase in cellular exercise associated with the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food.

Unsaturated Fat:

Vegetable fats usually contain little or no cholesterol.

Vitamin:

An organic substance which occurs in varying quantities in specific foods and is necessary for proper growth and maintenance of health.

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